Yamaha T135

Posted on November 29, 2011. Filed under: Jupiter MX / T135 / Spark, Motor, Yamaha | Tag: |

Mounting a completely new-design liquid-cooled 4-stroke 135cc engine An ASEAN market model with sporty ride in a body with the look of quality Yamaha Sports Moped “T135”

Sept. 20, 2005

Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. (YMC) has succeeded in the development of a new sporty model named the “T135” that mounts a liquid-cooled 4-stroke SOHC single-cylinder 135cc engine with a 4-speed rotary transmission on a body with the look of quality and a futuristic design. This model will be released in the ASEAN market beginning with Indonesia in October 2005.

The new “T135” has been developed under the key words of “a fusion of high performance and fashion” and it boasts the latest technologies throughout its design. It mounts the first liquid-cooled engine ever on a Yamaha 4-stroke moped, it features the highly reliable Yamaha DiASil cylinder, a lightweight forged aluminum piston for reduced vibration, a roller rocker arm type 4-valve system that contributes to better fuel economy, a 4-speed rotary type transmission, a new-design diamond type frame and an aerodynamic cowling that contributes to both improved cooling effect and greater rider comfort. These features combine to give this model higher level of running performance not achieved by conventional 125cc class sporty mopeds, and the whole package comes in a stylish body with the look of unquestionable quality and sleek refined beauty.


Yamaha Sports Moped “T135” (Indonesian market spec)



Yamaha Sports Moped “T135”

Release date:

Beginning Oct. 2005

Sales plan:

500,000 units (annual total for the Indonesia, Thailand,
Malaysia, Vietnam and Philippine markets)

Market Background and Product Summary

The motorcycle market in the ASEAN region has been growing rapidly in recent years, to the point where total demand for the four countries of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam reached 7.2 million units in 2004. This represents an approximate 30% increase over 2002, and as personal income continues to grow, this demand is expected to grow as well in the future.
Most of this demand centers around mopeds in the 110 to 125 cc class that are widely used for commuting and business and also by younger generation commuters. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future. But at the same time we expect to see a further diversification of user needs. In particular, there is an increasingly strong call from younger users for next-generation mopeds that offer higher levels of performance, new models that go beyond the present 125cc mopeds, sportier ride and fresh new styling.

In light of this market background, the “T135” was developed under the concept of “a fusion of high performance and fashion” with the key word “Performal” (a combination of performance and formal) to describe its development direction. To achieve these aims, the new model boasts the latest technologies throughout its design to give it the kind of running performance, comfort, stylish body and environment-friendly performance that go far beyond the conventional moped image.

For Yamaha Motor Company, January 2005 marked the end of our “NEXT 50” mid-term management plan and the start of our new “NEXT 50 – Phase II” plan defining specific management issues, business strategies and quantitative goals that will be in effect for the 3-year period until Dec. 2007. As the second phase of our “NEXT 50” plan, this new mid-term plan aims at even higher levels of corporate growth and profitability. In the area of motorcycle business, the new plan calls for approximately 25% more new models to be introduced in the same 3-year period. It also calls for production capacity in the ASEAN region to be increased from the present level of 1.6 million units annual to three million units annual by 2007. Amidst these plans, the new T135 is positioned as Yamaha’s new flagship moped.

Main Features


1) Liquid-cooled 135cc 4-valve engine that achieves both gutsy low-speed performance and plenty of high-speed power
A newly designed liquid-cooled 4-stroke 135cc engine has been adopted that delivers reliable performance as well as reduced noise and vibration. With a compression ratio of 10.9 : 1 on par with that of large-displacement sports bikes and a pent roof type combustion chamber that ensures rapid combustion, this engine delivers outstanding power output. The 135cc displacement ensures abundant torque in low speed range, while the 4-valve system contributes to outstanding power feeling in the mid- to high-speed range.
In adopting a liquid cooling system, efforts were made to keep the radiator and other components as compact as possible. At the same time the body is designed to direct optimum cooling air flow to achieve an excellent balance of engine performance, weight reduction and body compactness.

2) DiASil Cylinder adopted
The cylinder adopted in the T135 engine is the exclusive Yamaha all-aluminum DiASil Cylinder made by Yamaha’s unique aluminum forging technology that creates a cylinder wall that is so hard and durable that it eliminates the need for a conventional steel cylinder sleeve. As a result, it has excellent heat dissipation qualities. What’s more, Yamaha’s specially developed honing process gives the DiASil cylinder a surface that prevents oil flow and helps maintain an ideal oil film on the cylinder wall, thus reducing oil consumption. The T135 is the second Yamaha model to adopt this advanced technology, following the Japanese market model “Grand Majesty YP250G.”

3) First forged piston on a Yamaha moped
The T135 adopts the first aluminum forged piston ever on a Yamaha moped. Because the forged piston is light and strong can be made with less reciprocating mass, it contributes to running performance with reduced vibration. Because the aluminum alloy does not reach the melting point in Yamaha’s forged piston production method, the metallurgic matrix is not destroyed. This enables a piston the manufacture of an especially strong forged aluminum piston.

4) Excellent environmental performance
The T135 adopts Yamaha’s air induction system that cleans the exhaust by re-burning (oxidizing) any unburned fuel in the exhaust when it reaches the exhaust pipe. The exhaust that has been cleaned once in this way is then cleaned once again in the muffler by a multi-tube type catalytic converter. The result is excellent environmental performance.

5) Other engine-related features
Other features include (1) a roller rocker arm type valve system that contributes to outstanding fuel economy and smoother running feeling in the low- and mid-speed range, (2) a VM carburetor with acceleration pump that achieves good start-up acceleration and passing acceleration and (3) TPS (throttle position sensor) that makes possible 3-D mapped control based on information about engine rpm and throttle position to achieve optimum ignition timing and excellent fuel economy.

Body Features

1) New-design frame and optimized front-rear weight balance (45% front, 55% rear)
For the frame, a new-design diamond type pipe frame with excellent rigidity balance was developed. For the engine mounts, a 4-point rigid type mount system was designed that uses the engine as a stressed member that contributes to chassis strength and rigidity, thus achieving excellent rigidity balance. Meanwhile, the weight distribution is set at 45% front, 55% rear, close to that of a sports bike. This combines with the optimized center of gravity and caster and trail dimensions to contribute to a light and natural handling feeling.

2) Monocross suspension for pleasurable ride and smooth cornering characteristics
A newly designed Monocross suspension like the ones used on larger-displacement sports bikes has been adopted. This suspension is known for better concentration of mass and capacity for plenty of wheel travel. When added to the rigidity of the T135’s frame and rear arm and their relative positions, this Monocross suspension helps provide a pleasurable ride and excellent cornering characteristics.

3) Aerodynamic cowling that boosts cooling effect and makes for a more comfortable ride

An aerodynamic cowling with a distinctive new sleek and refined styling has been adopted. The air flow directed to the radiator by the front air guides helps promote better engine cooling effect. Furthermore, a separate set of air ducts has been designed to direct air flow through the cowling to cancel out heat developing there so that the rider does not feel a flow of hot air coming up directly from the radiator, thus achieving both improved cooling effect and greater rider comfort at the same time.

4) World’s first 5-lamp front mask stresses individuality
A fresh new front mask (front view) design reminiscent of Yamaha’s flagship YZF series sport bikes has been adopted. With the headlight in the middle and design position lamps to the right and left of it, a sporty 2-eye mask effect is achieved. The turn signal flashers are positioned to the outside of the position lamps to create a 5-lamp front mask.

Yamaha Sports Moped “T135” Specifications (Indonesia spec)

Overall length x width x height 1,945 x 750 x 1,065mm
Seat height 770mm
Wheelbase 1,245mm
Minimum ground clearance 140mm
Dry weight / Curb weight 103kg / 109kg
Engine type Liquid-cooled, 4-stroke, SOHC, 4-valve
Cylinder arrangement Single cylinder
Displacement 134.4cc
Bore x Stroke 54 x 58.7mm
Compression ratio 10.9 : 1
Maximum power 8.45kW / 8,500rpm
Maximum torque 11.65N-m / 5,500rpm
Starting system Electric / kick duo
Lubrication Wet sump
Engine oil volume 1.2L
Fuel tank capacity 4.0L
Carburetion VM21x 1
Ignition system DC-CDI
Primary / Secondary reduction ratio 2.875 / 2.600
Clutch type Clutch=wet centrifugal / transmission= wet multi-plate
Transmission type Rotary type 4-speed
Gear ratios 1st: 2.832, 2nd: 1.875, 3rd: 1.354, 4th: 1.045
Frame type Diamond type
Caster / Trail 25° 30′ / 75mm
Tire size (Front / Rear) 70/90-17 / 80/90-17
Brake type (Front / Rear) Hydraulic single disc / Drum
Suspension type (Front / Rear) Telescopic / Monocross
Headlight 12V35W / 32W x 1

Yamaha Sports Moped “T135” (Indonesia spec) Feature Map



Manufacturing New Value

Transferring manufacturing Technology overseas

Manufacturing New Value

On the left is a conventional aluminum cylinder with a steel liner for the inner wall. On the right is the Yamaha “DiASil Cylinder” that needs no liner or cylinder wall plating. As a unit well suited to the mass-production of high-performance, low-cost cylinders, the DiASil Cylinder manufacturing technology was successful transferred to our manufacturing base in Indonesia.

Transferring manufacturing Technology overseas

In 2004 Yamaha Motor successfully developed for the first time in the world a mass-production method for an all-aluminum (sleeveless, un-coated) cylinder named the “DiASil Cylinder” (*1). The production method for this DiASil Cylinder is in fact the fruit of Yamaha’s advanced die-casting technology known as the “CF (controlled filling) Aluminum Die Casting Technology” that we have been developing for some years now. Conventional aluminum cylinders for motorcycles have either a cast steel sleeve or nickel plating on the inner wall of the cylinder to improve resistance to abrasion and prevent piston freeze-up. With Yamaha’s DiASil Cylinder no liner or plating is needed (see photo). That makes this a mass-production aluminum cylinder with excellent cooling performance as well as nearly full recycle-ability at the end of its product life.
This is another example of how Yamaha’s philosophy of customer-oriented product creation is firmly implanted in our manufacturing technology as well. As a high-performance, low-cost cylinder that can be mass-produced, the DiASil Cylinder is a very effective manufacturing technology for the ASEAN region, one of the largest motorcycle markets in the world. When it came time for Yamaha to launch a new flagship model for the ASEAN market, the “T135,” plans were initiated for it to use the DiASil Cylinder, and at the same time a project was launched to transfer its high-level manufacturing technology to the Yamaha manufacturing base in Indonesia. Staff from Japan and Indonesia worked together on this project and cleared one hurdle after another until the production of these cylinders was successfully started in Indonesia. Now many customers in the ASEAN region who rely on motorcycles in their daily lives are benefiting from the performance and cost efficiency of the world’s first all-aluminum cylinder.

*1 DiASil: The name DiASil stands for Die casting Aluminum-Silicon alloy. An even distribution of hard silicon particles in this alloy greatly increases the abrasion resistance of the aluminum.

The YZF-R6’s aluminum main frame (left) and magnesium rear frame (above)

Thinner and larger parts for next-generation engineering and manufacturing

Aluminum is light and highly rust (oxidation) resistant and easily manufactured, which is why it is used abundantly in motorcycle and outboard motor parts. However, with conventional die casting methods (*2) it was difficult to manufacture aluminum parts that were both large and thin-walled, and this remained a technological problem in the industry. When Yamaha succeeded in the development of its exclusive CF Aluminum Die Casting Technology this important hurdle was finally cleared and the way was opened to next-generation mass production methods for aluminum parts. With this CF Aluminum Die Casting Technology, the number of pieces needed to make components like motorcycle frames can be greatly reduced along with their overall weight. This also simplifies the manufacturing and assembly processes. In 2007, Yamaha also succeeded in the development of a CF Magnesium Die Casting Technology that made it possible for Yamaha to introduce the world’s first magnesium rear frame on a production model for our YZF-R6.

*2 Die casting: In this casting method, molten metal is forced into a metal mold (die) at high pressure.

Theoretical value production, an ongoing quest

Industrial engineering is an analytical method used in analyzing work efficiency. In the factory where Yamaha motorcycles are assembled, a further advancement of this method is used to calculate how much time is theoretically needed to perform each job, and this has led to an exclusive concept we call “theoretical value production.” In this concept, the theoretical figure is in effect time that consists purely of “value work.” “Theoretical figures” are applied to all work processes in our efforts to further improve productivity in our factories.

Removing organizational boundaries – Yamaha’s System Supplier (SyS) system

In Yamaha’s motorcycle operations we have adopted a System Supplier (SyS) system that combines the organizational functions of development, manufacturing and procurement into single SyS units for each part or component. By removing the boundaries between these organizational bodies, the parts production process can be made simultaneous in ways that improve quality and reduce lead times, while also improving cost consciousness. At the same time, this system is involved in instruction and training of specialists in our motorcycle manufacturing bases around the world.

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